SUBF006, however, shows little resemblance to the ATCC 4698 since it has a 50% bigger genome size (3.86 MB) than the DSL strain (2.5 MB), and the 439 nt partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of SUBG006 shares only 94% identity with the 1418 nt 16S rRNA gene sequence of ATCC 4698, and matches over 100 other strains of Micrococcus. International Journal of Environmental Biology 42(2):5-145. Antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of myriapods (arthropoda). Panneerselvam P, Rather BA, Ravi Sankar Reddy D, Ramesh Kumar N. 2009. 1986; Sims and O'Loughlin, 1992). Plasmids profiles, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance incidence of endophytic bacteria isolated from grapevine (vitis vinifera L.). Molecular Microbiology 46(3):611-21. 1991. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59(10):10-3187. Journal of Medical Science, 8(1):73-6. down gelatin into smaller polypeptides, peptides, and amino acids that Guidance document for pathogenicity and toxicity of new microbial substances to aquatic and terrestrial organisms, Framework on the science-based risk assessment of micro-organisms under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters Version 5.0, valid from 2015-01-01, "List of bacterial names with standing in nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet", Health and Safety Executive of United Kingdom, List of procaryotic names with standing in nomenclature, Pathogen Safety Data Sheet - Infectious Substances, Micrococcus, Strain Passport ATCC 4698 Micrococcus luteus, Hanford pharmaceuticals issues a nationwide recall of cefazolin for injection because of possible health risk, Dairy product and method for preparing same. M. luteus was identified as one of eight bacterial species (Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium pyogenes, E. coli, M. luteus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) isolated in mastitic milk samples from Camels (Fazlani et al. Many older reports of Micrococcus infections were later attributed to various Staphylococcus species (reviewed by Kocur et al. However, M. luteus was also isolated together with other bacteria from an outbreak of rainbow trout fry syndrome in farmed British rainbow trout (Austin and Stoble, 1992). Misidentification of soil bacteria by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and BIOLOG analyses. Kocur M, Kloos W, Schleifer K. 2006. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 4:287-98. 1995); one case of central venous catheter-related bacteremia in a 48 year old female, kidney patient after hemodialysis (Peces et al. I used the Kirby-Bauer, or disk diffusion test to test for this, described in lab handout 9. can cross the cell membrane and be utilized by the organism. Agogué H, Casamayor EO, Bourrain M, Obernosterer I, Joux F, Herndl GJ, Lebaron P. 2005. A small number of cases of human infection with M. luteus, which is universally present on human skin, have been reported since 1995. Biskupiak JE, Meyers E, Gillum AM, Dean,L, Trejo WH, Kiersch D R. 1988. Chen H, Zhao G, Park D, Zhang Y, Xu L, Lee J, Kim C, Li W. 2009. In M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K.-H. Schleifer & E. Stackebrandt (Eds. This lines up with M. luteus’ resistances from the tests. Microbial contamination of non-disposable instruments in otolaryngology out-patients. It has properties that make it of potential use in bioremediation, biodegradation, wastewater treatment, drain cleaning and degreasing, growth promotion of plants and fish, skin treatment, and the production of enzymes and antibiotics. López L, Pozo C, Rodelas B, Calvo C, Juárez B, Martínez-Toledo MV, González-López J. In addition to its more restricted substrate assimilation profile, M. luteus can be differentiated from M. lylae on the basis of peptidoglycan, menaquinone and fatty acid composition. Microbial colonization of polymeric materials for space applications and mechanisms of biodeterioration: A review. Plos One 8(11). In vitro interaction of chronic wound bacteria in biofilms. They are fairly small as well, usually about a millimeter in diameter and of a normal height. Presently, the genus Micrococcus includes 10 species (LPSN, 2015): Taxonomic differentiation of Micrococcus species is more reliable by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, using Micrococcaceae-specific signature nucleotides at positions 293-304, 610, 598, 615-625, 1025-1036, 1026-1035, 1265-1270 and 1278 according to Escherichia coli numbering (Wieser et al., 2002). Microbiological characteristics of “androlla”, a spanish traditional pork sausage. Isolation and characterization of a novel nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium with high salinity tolerance: Micrococcus luteus. Fatal Micrococcus sp. Purmal K, Chin S, Pinto J, Yin W, Chan K. 2010. 2011. Zhang J, Liu X, Liu S. 2010. 2009); fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in two children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Payne et al. ), The Prokaryotes (pp. This relatedness was also confirmed by genomic sequence analysis (Young et al. However, resistance to penicillin G, tetracycline, clindamycin, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin and lincomycin have been observed in some strains (Lampert et al. 390-404). Can. 2014. Biotechnology Letters 32(12):1853-62. biodegradation and bioremediation of toxic pollutants (reviewed in Dib et al. Miltiadous G and Elisaf M. 2011. Rakhashiya PM, Patel PP, Thaker VS. 2016. 2,6-diaminopurine-2’-deoxyriboside and 2’-deoxyguanosine (Yokozeki et al. Moderate pathogenicity of M. luteus towards an insect pest of hazelnuts was reported under experimental conditions, which are unlikely to occur in nature. There are no reports in the publicly available literature clearly implicating M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 in adverse effects on humans. 2014. The environmental hazard potential of M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is assessed to be low because despite of the widespread occurrence of M. luteus in the environment, the evidence from the scientific literature suggests that M. luteus does not adversely affect aquatic or terrestrial vertebrates, invertebrates or plants at the population level in the environment. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from Aloe vera. However, the strain was identified using a limited number of biochemical tests and was recorded as being motile, which is not typically a characteristic of M. luteus, so it may have been misidentified. Further details on the risk assessment methodology used are available in the Risk Assessment Framework document “Framework on the Science-Based Risk Assessment of Micro-organisms under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999” (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2011). Since Micrococcus species are part of the healthy skin flora, their role in disease is thought to be limited, but the organism appears to be capable of attacking damaged tissues (Seifert et al. cheese (Addis et al. Bevinakatti BG and Ninnekar HZ. 2009). Generally, M. luteus is considered to be a harmless, non-pathogenic, commensal organism that is rarely isolated as an opportunistic pathogen. Finally, when looking at the API 20E strip none of the results returned positive despite the culture being active and fresh from being streaked recently. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 117(02):122-5. (Rakhashiya et al. It is the type strain of the species. 2014); 90 cases of bacteremia in cancer patients identified in a ten-year survey from 1997 to 2006 (Ramos et al. VKMM 037. Prioritization of micro-organisms on the domestic substances list prior to the screening assessment under paragraph 74(b) of CEPA 1999. Probiotic nutritional preparation. 1987). The catalase test did return positive by bubbling, indicating that it does have the ability to break down the radical hydrogen peroxide into diatomic oxygen and hydrogen. Purification and characterization of a unique alkaline elastase from Micrococcus luteus. a skin treatment composition for odour control and biocontrol of bacterial skin disorders (Tagg et al. M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is susceptible to antibacterial compounds produced by other micro-organisms, which could make it a poor competitor outside of its niche environment. European Patent No: EP 0 904 784 A1. Government agencies and organizations searched include: the United States Environmental Protection Agency; United States Food and Drug Administration; United States Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services; United States Department of Agriculture; American Biological Safety Association; World Health Organization; United States Centers for Disease Control; Biosecurity NZ; Australian Department of Health; European Food Safety Authority; European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; and the Invasive Species Specialist Group. Seven of nine M. luteus strains isolated from biofilms formed in the endotracheal tubes of 9/20 patients in a university hospital in Belgium were resistant to oxacillin (Vandecandelaere et al. The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) assigned M. luteus to Risk Group 1 (low individual risk, low community risk) for both humans and terrestrial animals (PHAC, 2011; PHAC personal communication, 2015). The species Cellulomonas flavigena was used as the outgroup. Yokozeki K, Tsuji T, Izawa K. 2001. The effect was dependent on the presence of as little as <1% v/v water, suggesting that the mechanism of this effect may be the formation of carbonic acid within the cell. The adaptability of M. luteus to extreme environments has been attributed to these dormant structures (Dib et al. Later, Myxococcus xanthus was also shown to be one of the predators of M. luteus (Hillesland et al. The identification of a low molecular mass bacteriocin, rhamnosin A, produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 68. A search of the public domain (MSDS, literature and patents) revealed the following consumer, commercial and industrial applications for other strains of M. luteus. 2005. After it was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq at the UAF Core lab, I used the online program Base Space to analyze the reads that I got from sequencing. Protein Expression and Purification 18(1):46-55. M. luteus is the majority of reads on the species level. Micrococcus luteus endocarditis: Case report and review of the literature. ribavirin ( Fujishima and Yamamoto, 1986). Information submitted in response to the section 71 Notice indicates that M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 was not imported into or manufactured in Canada in 2008, except in limited quantities for academic research, teaching, and research and development activities. Water Science Technology 47:303-8. a Data compiled from Tang and Gillevet, 2003, Multiple antibiotic resistance and heavy metals resistance, Streptomycin resistance, cholesterol degradation, Nalidixic acid resistance, degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos, Degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos, Resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, tobramycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol, resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, Transposases (Wagenknecht et al. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and other catalase- positive cocci. Preliminary studies on the characterization and distribution of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species on animal skin. International Journal of Food Microbiology 69(1–2):25-36. 2009. The colony morphology of being yellow, shiny and smooth line up perfectly with M. luteus (Public Health England). 2002. 1974). Prakash O, Nimonkar Y, Munot H, Sharma A, Vemuluri VR, Chavadar MS, Shouche YS. Direct exposure of the general population would not be expected in the event M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is used in Canada for bioremediation/biodegradation of toxic compounds, metal binding or as a production organism. Process for the production of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine esters. EPIDEMIOLOGY: Micrococcus spp. Resistance and cross-resistance to oxidising agents of bacterial isolates from endoscope washer disinfectors. Microbial Ecology 48(1):120-7. growth promotion of fish (Abd El-Rhman et al. Bibel DJ and Smiljanic HJ. Almost all followed a medical procedure that could introduce micro-organisms from the skin into sterile body compartments, often in individuals with debilitating diseases, such as cancer or kidney failure.
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